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Chapter: 3 Chemistry
    Section: 3.11 Miscellaneous data
        SubSection: 3.11.1 Properties of polymers

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3.11 Miscellaneous data

3.11.1 Properties of polymers

As the physical properties of polymers vary from sample to sample and are dependent on composition and pretreatment of the specimen, only ranges of values are recorded. There are now available a large number of co-polymers and filled polymers concerning which information can be found in J. Brandrup and E. H. Immergut (eds), Polymer Handbook, 1966 (Interscience, New York) and in Modern Plastics, 1970–71 Encyclopedia (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York).


Polymer

ρ

kg m−3 

Tensile

strength

MN m−2

105 Coeff.linear 

expansion

°C

 

Heat 
capacity

 

J g−1 K−1

 

Thermal
conductivity

 

W m−1 K−1

nD


Resistivity

Ω cm

Dielectric 
constant


Stability


Acetals

1420

65

8

1.46

0.23

1.48

1015

Attacked by some acids and alkalies, good resistance to organic solvents.

                   

Cellulose (cotton, wood
    pulp) and regenerated

1480–1530

80–240

1.3–1.5

0.23

1.53–1.56

107–1014

6.7–7.5

Decomposed by oxid. agents and strong acids or by heating to 270 °C. Absorbs water.

                   

Cellulose acetate:
    Moulded

1220–1340

12–58

8–18

1.26–1.8

0.17–0.33

1.46–1.50

1010–1014

3.5–7.5

Softens at ~ 130 °C, decomposed by strong acids and alkalies, soluble in ketones and esters, softened or dissolved by chlorinated or aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Sheet

1280–1320

30–52

10–15

1.26–2.1

0.17–0.33

1.49–1.50

1011–1015

3.5–7.5

                   

Cellulose nitrate
(Celluloid)

1350–1400

50

8–12

1.3–1.7

0.12–0.21

1.49–1.51

1010

7.0–7.5

Softens at ~ 60 °C and ignites ~ 160 °C. Decomposed by strong acids and alkalies. Soluble in alcohol, ethers and esters.

                   

Chlorinated polyether

1400

39

8

0.13

1015

3.1

Unattacked by acids or alkalies except by oxid. acids. Resists most solvents.

                   

Epoxy cast resins

1110–1400

26–85

4.5–6.5

1.0

0.17–0.21

1.55–1.61

1012–1017

3.5–5.0

Unattacked by weak acids and alkalies, some attack by strong acids and alkalies. Generally resistant to organic solvents.

                   

Nylon-6
    (Poly-ε-caprolactam)

1120–1170

45–90

28

1.6

0.25

1012–1015

3.7–5.5

Stable at 100 °C. Softens at ~ 230 °C. Attacked by strong acids but resistant to alkalies. Resistant to common organic solvents but dissolves in phenol and formic acid.

                   

Nylon-66
    (Polyhexamethylene-
    adipamide)

1130–1150

60–80

8

1.7

0.25

1.53

1014–1015

4.0–4.6

Stable at 100 °C. Softens at ~ 230 °C. Attacked by strong acids but resistant to alkalies. Resistant to common organic solvents but dissolves in phenol and formic acid.

                   

Phenolic cast resins

1240–1320

33–59

6–8

1.25–1.67

0.15

1.58–1.66

1012–1013

6.5–17.5

Not affected by acids, attacked by strong alkalies, little affected by organic solvents.

                   

Phenol-formaldehyde
    moulding compounds

1250–1300

45–52

2.5–6.0

1.59–1.76

0.13–0.25

1.5–1.7

1011–1012

5.0–6.5

Slightly attacked by acids and alkalies. Depending on composition soluble or insoluble in organic solvents.

                   

Polyacrylonitrile

1160–1180

200
(fibres)

7

1.52

1014

6.5

Fair resistance to weak alkalies but soluble in strong nitric and sulphuric acids.

                   

Polycarbonates

1200

52–62

6.6

1.17–1.25

0.19

1.59

1016

2.97–3.17

Unattacked by weak acids, some attack by strong acids and alkalies. Resistant to paraffinic solvents but soluble in aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

                   

Poly-2-chloro-1,3-buta-
    diene (Neoprene)

1230–1250

20

2.18

0.19

1.56

1010–1013

Soluble in many organic solvents but resistance to heat and oil greater than that of natural rubber.

                   

Polychlorotrifluoro-
    ethylene

2100–2200

29–39

4.5–7.0

0.9

0.20–0.22

1.43

1018

2.24–2.8

Not affected by acids or alkalies but halogenated organic solvents cause slight swelling.

                   

Polyethylene
    Low density

910–925

4–15

10–20

0.33

1.51

1015–1018

2.25–2.35

All grades melt ~ 133 °C, insoluble in common solvents below 60 °C, resistant to acids and alkalies but attacked by oxid. acids.

    Medium density

926–940

8–22

10–20

0.33–0.42

1.52

1015–1018

2.25–2.35

    High density

940–965

20–36

10–20

0.45–0.52

1.54

1015–1018

2.30–2.35

                   

Polyethylene
   terephthalate

1370–1380

66

6

1.25

0.29

1.54

1016

3.25

Softens ~ 250 °C. Resistant to dilute acids and alkalies but attacked by oxid. acids. Insoluble in many common solvents but soluble in hot aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

                   

Polyimide aromatics

1430

68

4–5

1.12

opaque

>1016

3.4

Thermally very stable and does not burn. Resistant to acids but attacked by alkalies. Insoluble in organic solvents.

                   

Polyisoprene
   Natural rubber

 
906–913

 

 
22

 
1.88

 
0.13

 
1.52

 
106

 

 
Swells in many organic solvents. More resistive to attack by chemicals than natural rubber.

   Hard rubber

1130–1180

39

 6

1.38

0.16

1.6  

1016

Polymethylmethacrylate

1170–1200

45–72

5–9

1.5

0.17–0.25

1.48–1.50

>1014

3.3–4.5

Softens at ~ 180 °C. Attacked by high concentrations of oxid acids. Soluble in ketones, esters, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

                   

Polypropylene

902–906

28–36

6–10

1.92

0.12

1.49

>1016 

2.2–2.6

Softens at ~ 160 °C. Resistant to acids and alkalies but attacked by oxid. acids. Insoluble in common organic solvents below 80 °C.

                   

Polystyrene

1040–1090

30–100

3.4–21

1.3–1.5

0.04–0.14

1.59–1.60

>1016

2.45–2.65

Softens at ~ 98 °C and burns. Unaffected by acids or alkalies, attacked by strong oxid. acids. Soluble in aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

                   

Polytetrafluoroethylene
moulding compound

2140–2200

13–33

10

1.0

0.25

1.35

>1018

Not affected by acids, alkalies or organic solvents.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                   

Polyurethane
    Cast liquid

1100–1500

1–65

10–20

1.8

0.21

1.50–1.60

1011–1015

4.0–7.5

Slightly attacked by weak acids and alkalies. Strongly attacked by strong acids and alkalies. Only slightly affected by organic solvents.

                   

Polyurethane
    Elastomer

1110–1250

29–55

10–20

1.8

0.07–0.31

1011–1013

5.4–7.6

Attacked by acids and alkalies and may dissolve. Resistant to most organic solvents.

                   

Polyvinylchloride
    (PVC)

1300–1400

~ 50

7–8

0.84–1.17

0.12–0.17

1.53–1.55

1016

3.2–3.6

Softens at 80 °C. Soluble in organic solvents.

                   

Polyvinylidene chloride
    moulding compounds

1650–1720

20–33

19

1.34

0.13

1.60–1.63

1014–1016

4.5–6.0

Resistant to acids and alkalies, little or only slightly affected by organic solvents.

                   

Silicone cast resin

1300

8–30

0.15–0.32

1.43

1014–1015

2.7–4.2

Excellent stability to heat and oxidation, water repellent, insoluble in many organic solvents.

 

Permeability constants for polymers

The permeability constant P is defined as

     P = (amount of permeant)/(area)(time)(driving force across the film)

The unit employed here for P is the amount of vapour expressed in cm3 measured at 0 °C and 1 standard atmosphere (101.325 kN m−2) passed in 1 second for an area of 1 cm2 of film when the pressure across the film of 1 cm thickness is 101.325 kN m−2.

Additional data can be found in an article by H. Yasuda (1966), Polymer Handbook (eds J. Brandrup and E. H. Immergut), Interscience, New York.


Polymer

1010P

106P

 

H2

N2

O2

CO2

H2O

 

θ/°C

 

θ/°C

 

θ/°C

 

θ/°C

 

θ/°C

 

Cellulose    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
    (Cellophane)

25

      0.494

25

      0.243

25

        0.160

25

          0.357

 —

Cellulose acetate    .  .  .  .  .

20

  266

30

    21.3

30

      59.3

30

       181

25

   41.8

Cellulose nitrate     .  .  .  .  .

20

  152

25

      9.1

25

    148

25

       161

25

   47.8

Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
    (Amorphous)

20

    71

25

      0.380

25

        3.0

40

         16.0

25

     0.002 2

Polyethylene:
    Low density     .  .  .  .  .

30

  912

30

  103

30

    300

30

    1 269

25

     0.684

    High density     .  .  .  .  .

20

  228

30

    13.7

30

      38.8

30

       160

25

     0.091

Polyethylene terephthalate

20

  281

30

      0.836

30

       3.42

30

           1.14

25

     0.988

Polyisoprene     .  .  .  .  .  .
    (Natural rubber)

25

  3952

25

  623

25

  1809              

25

  10 260

 —

Polypropylene      .  .  .  .  .

20

  312

30

    33.4

30

    175

30

       700

25

    0.388

Polystyrene    .  .  .  .  .  .  .

30

    22.0

30

      83.6

30

       669

25

    9.12

Polytetrafluoroethylene  .  .

20

  152

 —

 —

20

       357

 —

Polyvinylchloride     .  .  .  .

20

  182

30

      8.36

30

      22.8

30

       114

25

    1.19

Polyvinylidenechloride   .  .

30

      0.071

30

        0.403  

30

          2.28

25

    0.0038

Nylon-6      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .

30

      0.722

30

        2.89

20

          6.69

 —

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.F.G. Herington

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