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Chapter: 3 Chemistry
    Section: 3.2 Properties of inorganic compounds

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3.2 Properties of inorganic compounds

Formula (including water of crystallization), melting and boiling temperatures, density and solubility

The properties, including melting, θm, and boiling, θb, temperatures are for the substances as formulated and at a pressure of 101.325 kPa (1 atm 760 Torr) and values θ/p at a pressure p. Loss of water at a specific temperature θ/°C is denoted by −1, −2, etc., H2O/θ, and loss of oxygen, etc., similarly. Densities ρ are for 20 °C; values ρ/θ are for a temperature θ/°C. The densities of gases and vapours are not given because approximate values can be calculated from the ideal gas laws and more accurate values can be obtained by the use of the table in section 3.5. Solubilities S are for cold water (20°C) and hot water (100°C) unless some other temperature is indicated, thus: S/θ. The solubility S is 100 times the mass of anhydrous compound soluble in a unit mass of water. The solid in equilibrium with the saturated solution may not be the anhydrous compound nor may it be a hydrate listed in this table. For some additional information on the solubilities of solids see the table in section 3.6.2. For some gases the value of the absorption coefficient (A) is given: the volume of gas measured at 0 °C and 101.325 kPa (1 atm) which will dissolve in a unit volume of water at the stated temperature, under a partial pressure of 101.325 kPa of the gas. For some additional information on the solubilities of gases see the table in section 3.6.1.

Abbreviations used are: a., acid; ac., acetic acid; acet., acetone; al., alcohol (ethanol); alk., alkali; anh., anhydrous; aq., aqueous; aq. reg., aqua regia; bz., benzene; c., cold; chl., chloroform; conc., concentrated; d., decomposes; dil., dilute; eth., ether; exp., explodes; fus., fused; h., hot; i., insoluble; me., methanol; pyr., pyridine; s., soluble; sb., sublimes; sl., slightly; slt., salts; tol., toluene; v., very; vac., vacuum; ∞, miscible in all proportions.


For the web edition, this table has been divided into four parts, alphabetically by full name of element:

Part 1: Aluminium - Chlorine (this page)

Part 2: Chromium - Lithium

Part 3: Magnesium - Selenium

Part 4: Silicon - Zirconium


Part 1: Aluminium - Chlorine

Al |  NH3 |  Sb |  As |  Ba |  Be |  Bi |  B |  Cd |  Cs |  Ca |  C |  Ce |  Cl | 


Inorganic compounds

Compound

θm/°C

θb/°C

ρ/(kg m−3)

Solubility

Cold water

Hot water

Other solvents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top |

Aluminium

 

 

 

 

 

 

    Bromide, AlBr3

97.5

263.3/747 Torr

  2640

d.

d.

   s. al., CS2, acet.

    Chloride, AlCl3

sb. 181

 

  2440

d.

d.

   s. al., eth., CCl4; sl.
       s. bz.

    Fluoride, AlF3

sb. 1291

  3070

0.50

1.71

   i. a., alk., al., acet.

    Iodide, AlI3

191

360

  3980

s.

s.

   s. al., eth., CS2, NH3

    Nitrate, Al(NO3)3.9H2O

73.5

d. 150

  —

74

1.60

   s. a., alk., al.

    Nitride, AlN

>2200 (N2)

d.

  3260

d.

d.

   d. a., alk.

    Oxide, α-Al2O3

2015

2980

  3970

i.

i.

   v. sl. s. a., alk.

    Sulphate, Al2(SO4)3

d. 770

  2710

36.4

98.1

   s. dil. a.; sl. s. al.

    Sulphide, Al2S3

1100

sb. 1500 (in N2)

  2020

d.

   s. a., alk.; i. acet.

Top |


Ammonium

 

 

 

 

 

 

    Ammonia, NH3

−77.7

−33.4

  —

89.5/0

7.4

   s. al., eth.

    Acetate, NH4C2H3O2

114

d.

  1170 

148/4

d.

   s. al.; sl. s. acet.

    Azide, NH4N3

sb. 134 (exp.)

 

  1346

25.3

37/40 

   s. al.; i. eth., bz.

    Bromide, NH4Br

sb. 452

  2429

97/25

145

   s. al., eth., acet, NH3

    Carbonate, (NH4)2CO3.H2O

d. 58

  —

84/15

d. 355

   i. al., CS2, NH3

    Chloride, NH4Cl

sb. 340



  1527

37.2

77.3

   s. NH3; sl. s. al.;
       i. acet., eth.

    Chromate, (NH4)2CrO4

d. 180

  1910

34.0

d.

   sl. s. NH3, acet.; i.al.

    Cyanide, NH4CN

d. 36

  1020/100

v. s.

d.

   v. s. al.

    Dichromate,
       (NH4)2Cr2O7

d. 170

  2150

35.6

156

   s. al.; i. acet.

    Dihydrogen phosphate,
       (NH4)H2PO4


190



  1803


37.4


173


   i. acet.

    Fluoride, NH4F

sb.

  1009/25

100/0

d.

   s. al.; i. NH3

    Formate, NH4CHO2

116

d. 180

  1280

143

533/80

   s. al., NH3

    Hydrogen phosphate,

 

 

 

 

 

 

       (NH4)2HPO4

d. 155

  1619

68.9

97.2/60

   i. al., acet., NH3

    Hydrogen sulphide, NH4HS

118/15 MPa

884/1.9 MPa

  1170

128.1/0

d.

   s. al., NH3

    Iodate, NH4IO3

d. 150

  3309/21

2.06/15

   —

    Iodide, NH4I

sb. 551

      2514/25

172

250

   v. s. al., acet., NH3

    Molybdate, (NH4)2MoO4 

d.

      2276/25

s.d.

d.

   s. a.; i. al., NH3

    Nitrate, NH4NO3

170

210/11

      1725/25

192

871

   s. al., acet., NH3

    Nitrite, NH4NO2 exp. 60—70

      1690

v.s. d.    s. al; i. eth.

    Oxalate,
        (NH4)2C2O4.H2O

d.

      1500

4.45

34.64

   i. NH3

    Sulphate, (NH4)2SO4

d. 235

      1769/50

75.4

103

   i. al., acet., NH3

    Tartrate,
        (NH4)2C4H4O

d.

      1601

63.0

86.9/60

   sl. s. al.

6    Thiocyanate, NH4CNS

149.6

d. 170

      1305

170

346/60

   s. al., acet., NH3

    Vanadate, meta-,
        NH4VO3

d. 200

      2326

0.48

2.42/60

   i. al., eth., NH4Cl

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

Top |

Antimony
    Bromide, SbBr3

96.6

275

      4148/23

d.

d.

   s. HCl, CS2, al., NH3

    Chloride, tri-, SbCl3

73.4

283

      3140/25

910

∞/72

   s. HCl, al., bz., CS2

       ,,     , penta-,  SbCl5

2.8

79/22

      2336

d.

d.

   s. HCl, chl.

    Fluoride, tri-, SbF3

292

      4379/21

445

564/30

   i. NH3

    Fluoride, penta-, SbF5

7

149

      2990/23

s.

   s. KF

    Hydride, SbH3

− 88

−17

      2260/−25

0.2/0 (A)

   v. s. al., CS2

    Iodide, SbI3

− 167

400

      4917/17

d.

d.

   s. HCl, KI, al.,
     acet., bz., CS2

    Oxide, tri-, Sb2O3

655

1550

      5250

v. sl. s.

sl. s.

   s. HCl, KOH

        ,,    , penta-, Sb2O5

− O/380

− 2O/930

      3800

v. sl. s.

sl. s.

   v. sl. s. HCl, KOH

    III Oxychloride, SbOCl

d.

      —

i.

d.

   s. HCl, acet., CS2

    III Sulphate Sb2(SO4)3

d.

      3625/4

i.

d.

   s. a.

    Sulphide, tri-, Sb2S3

547

1150

      4640

1.75 × 10−4/18

d.

   s. alk., HCl, K2S, al.

        ,,       , penta-, Sb2S5    

d. 75

      4120

i.

i.

   s. alk., HCl

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

Top |

Arsenic

 

 

     

 

 

 

    Bromide, AsBr3

32.8

220

      3540/25

d.

d.

   s. HCl, CS2

    Chloride, AsCl3

− 8.5

130.2

      2163

d.

d.

   s. HCl, al., eth.

    Fluoride, tri-, AsF3

− 6

− 56

      —

d.

d.

   s. al., eth., bz.

    Fluoride, penta-, AsF5

− 80

− 52.8

      —

s.

   s. alk., al., eth., bz.

    Hydride, AsH3

− 116.3

− 55

      1689/−85

0.2/0 (A)

   sl. s. alk.; s. chl.

    Iodide, AsI3

146

403

      4390/13

6/25

d.

   s. al., eth., chl., bz

    Oxide, tri, As2O3

315

457

      3738

3.7

10.1

   s. alk., HCl; i. eth.

        ,,    , penta-, As2O5

d. 315

      4320

150/16

76.4

   s. alk., al., a.

    Sulphide, tri-, As2S3

300

707

      3430

5 × 10−5/18

sl. s.

   s. K2S, NaHCO3, al.

        ,,    , penta-, As2S5

sb. d. 500

      —

1.36 × 10−4/0

d.

   s. alk., HNO3

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

Top |

Barium
    Acetate, Ba(C2H3O2)2

      2468

72

74.8

   i. al.

    Bromate,
       Ba(BrO3)2.H2O

− H2O/170

d. 260

      3990/18

0.66

5.7

   s. acet.; i. al.

    Bromide, BaBr2.2H2O

− H2O/75

− 2H2O/120

      3584/24

104

149

   s. al.

         ,,      , BaBr2

857

d.

      4781/24

104

149

   v. s. al.; v. sl. s. acet.

    Carbonate, BaCO3

d.

      4430

2 × 10−3

6 × 10−3

   s. a., NH4Cl; i. al.

    Chlorate,
        Ba(ClO3)2.H2O

− H2O/120

 − O/250

      3180

34.4

105

   sl. s. al., acet.

    Chloride, BaCl2.2H2O

− 2H2O/113

37.5/20

      3097/24

35.7

58.8

   sl. s. HCl, HNO3

         ,,      , BaCl2 (β)

961

1560

      3917

35.7

58.8

   v. sl. s. al.

    Fluoride, BaF2

1355

2137

      4890

0.16

sl. s.

   s. a., NH4Cl

    Hydride, BaH2

d. 675

      4210/0

d.

d.

   d. a.

    Hydroxide,
        Ba(OH)2.8H2O

− 8H2O/78

      2180/16

3.9

101/80

   sl. s. al.; i. acet.

    Iodate, Ba(IO3)2

d.

 

      4998

0.035

197

   s. HNO3, HCl

    Iodide, BaI2.2H2O

− H2O/100

− 2H2O/540

      5150

220

276

   s. al., acet.

       ,,    , BaI2

740

200/15

      5150/25

220

276

   v. s. al., me., a.

    Nitrate, Ba(NO3)2

592

d.

      3240/23

9.0

34.4

   sl. s. a.; i. al.

    Nitrite, Ba(NO2)2.H2O

d. 115

      3173

67.5

30.0

   v. s. a.; sl. s. al.

        ,,   , Ba(NO2)2

d. 217



      3230/23

67.5

30.0

   v. s. HCl; sl. s. al.;
       i. acet.

    Oxide, BaO

2010

2000

     5720

3.48

90.8/80

   s. dil. a., al.; i. acet.

    Perchlorlate, Ba(ClO4)2

505

     3200

198.5/25

562.3

   v. s. al.

    Peroxide, BaO2

450

− O/800

     4960

v. sl. s.

d.

   s. dil. a.; i. acet

    Sulphate, BaSO4

1580

     4500/15

2 × 10− 4

4 × 10− 4

   sl. s. H2SO4

    Sulphide, BaS

1200

     4250/15

d.

d.

   i. al., CS2

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

Top |

Beryllium

 

 

   

 

 

 

    Bromide, BeBr2

sb. 475

     3465/25

s.

v. s.

   s. al. eth., pyr.; i. bz.

    Chloride, BeCl2

405

520

     1899/25

73

v. s. d.

   v. s. al., eth., pyr.; sl.
       s. bz., chl; i. CS2

    Fluoride, BeF2

sb. 800

     1986/25

v. s.

v. s.

   s. H2SO4; sl. s. al.

    Iodide, BeI2

510

590

     4325/26

d.

d.

   s. al., eth., CS2

    Nitrate,
        Be(NO3)2.3H2O

60

142

     1557

v. s.

v. s.

   v. s. al.

    Oxide, BeO

2540

3900

     3010

2 × 10− 5/30

   s. H2SO4, fus. KOH

    Sulphate, BeSO4.4H2O

− 2H2O/100

− 4H2O/400

     1713/10.5

38.9

85.1

   sl. s. H2SO4; i. al., acet.

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

Top |

Bismuth
    Bromide, BiBr3

218

453

     5720/25

d.

d.

   s. HCl, eth.; i. al.

    Chloride, BiCl3

232

447

     4750/25

d.

d.

   s. a., al., eth., acet.

    Fluoride, BiF3

730

     5320

i.

   s. a.; i. al.

    Hydroxide, Bi(OH)3

− H2O/100

− 1 1 H2O/400
2

     4360

1.4 × 10− 4

d.

   s. a.; sl. s. conc. alk.

    Iodide, BiI3

408

500

     5778/15

i.

d.

   s. HCl., HI, al.

    Nitrate, Bi(NO3)3.5H2O

− H2O/18

     2830

d.

d.

   v. s. HNO3; s. a., acet.;
      i. al.

    Oxide, Bi2O3

820

1890

     8900

i.

i.

   s. a.

    Oxychloride, BiOCl

d.

     7720/15

i.

i.

   s. a.; i. acet.

    Sulphate, Bi2(SO4)3

d. 405

     5080/15

d.

d.

   s. a.

    Sulphide, Bi2S3

d. 685

     7390

1.8 × 10− 5/18

   s. HNO3; i. dil. al.

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

Top |

Boron
    Bromide, BBr3

− 46

91.3

     2643/18

d.

   s. al., CCl4

    Chloride, BCl3

− 107

12.7

     1349/11

d.

d.

   d. al.

    Fluoride, BF3 

− 126.7

− 99.9

     —

1.06/0(A)

d.

   s. conc. H2SO4; d. al.

    Hydride, B2H6

− 165.5

− 92.5

     447/−11

sl. s. d.

d.

   s. NH4OH, conc. H2SO4

        ,,    , B4H10

− 120.8

16

     560/−35

sl. s. d.

d.

   d. al.; s. bz.

    Iodide, BI3

49.9

210

     3350/50

d.

d.

   d. al.;v. s. CS2, bz.,
       CCl4

    Nitride, BN

sb. 3000

     2250

i.

sl. d.

   sl. s. hot a.

    Oxide, B2O3

450

1860

     2460

1.1/0

16.4

   s. a. al.

    Boric acid, H3BO3

d. 169

     1435/15

4.9

27.6

   s. al.; s. acet.

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

Top |

Cadmium
    Acetate, Cd(C2H3O2)2


256


d.


     2341


v. s.



   s. me.

    Bromide, CdBr2

567

863

     5192/25

98.8

166

   s. al.; sl. s. eth., acet.

    Carbonate, CdCO3

d. <500

     4258/4

i.

i.

   s. a., KCN, NH4 slt.

    Chloride, CdCl2

568

967

     4047/25

134

147

   s. al.; i. acet., eth.

    Fluoride, CdF2

1110

1758

     6640

4.35/25

   s. a., HF; i. al.

    Hydroxide, Cd(OH)2

d. 300

     4790/15

2.6 × 10− 4/26

   s. a., NH4 slt.; i. alk.

    Iodide, CdI2

387

796

     5670/30

84.7

125

   s. al., acet.; sl. s.
       NH3

    Nitrate,
       Cd(NO3)2.4H2O

59.4

132

     2455/17

158/25

681

   s. al., eth., acet., NH3

    Nitrate, Cd(NO3)2

350

     —

158/25

681

   v. s. a.

    Oxide, CdO

sb. 1559

     8150

i.

i.

   s. a. , NH4 slt.; i. alk.

    Sulphate, CdSO4

1000

     4691

76.4

58

   i. al., acet.

    Sulphide, CdS

sb. 980

     4820

1.3 × 10− 4/18

colloid

   s. a.; v. sl. s. NH4OH

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

Top |

Caesium
    Acetate, Cs(C2H3O2)

194

     —

945/− 2.5

1345/88

   —

    Bromide, CsBr

636

1300

     4440

124.3/25

v. s.

   s. a.

    Carbonate, Cs2CO3

d. 610

     —

260/15

v. s.

   s. al., eth.

    Chloride, CsCl

645

1300

     3988

187

271

   v. s. al.; i. acet.

    Fluoride, CsF

682

1251

     4115

367/18

   v. s. me.; i. pyr.

    Hydroxide, CsOH

272.3

     3675

395/15

   s. al.

    Iodide, CsI

626

1280

     4510/25

44/0

160/61

   s. al.

    Nitrate, CsNO3

417

d.

     3685

23

197

   s. acet.; sl. s. al.

    Oxide, mon-, Cs2O

d. 400

     4250

v. s.

d.

   s. a.

        ,,    , per-, Cs2O2

400

− O2/650

     4350

s.

d.

   s. a.

    Sulphate, Cs2SO4

1010

     4243

167/0

220

   i, al., acet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top |

Calcium
    Acetate, Ca(C2H3O2)2

d.

     —

37.4/0

29.7

   sl. s. al.

    Bromide, CaBr2

742

1810

     3353/25

143

309

   s. al., acet., a.

    Carbide, CaC2

2300

     2200

d.

d.

   —

    Carbonate, CaCO3
        (aragonite)

d. 825

     2930

0.00153/25

0.00190/75

   s. a., NH4Cl

    Carbonate, CaCO3
        (calcite)

d. 899

     2710/18

0.0014/25

0.0018/75

   s. a., NH4Cl

    Chloride, CaCl2..6H2O

− 4H2O/30

− 6H2O/200

     1710/25

74.5

159

   s. al.

          ,,      , CaCl2

772

1940

     2150/25

74.5

159

   s. al., acet.

    Fluoride, CaF2

1420

2500

     3180

0.0016/18

   s. NH4 slt.; sl. s. a.

    Hydride, CaH2

816 (H2)

d. 600

     1900

d.

d.

   d. a.; i. bz.

    Hydroxide, Ca(OH)2

− H2O/580

d.

     2240

0.12

0.077

   s. NH4Cl aq., a.; i. al.

    Iodide, CaI2

778

1100

     3956/25

209

426

   s. al., acet., a.

    Nitrate, Ca(NO3)2.4H2O

40

d. 132

     1850

129

376

   s. al., acet.

        ,,     , Ca(NO3)2

561

     2504/18

129

376

   s. al., acet.

    Nitrite, Ca(NO2)2.4H2O

− 2H2O/44

     1674/0

48/0

68/42

   s. al.

    Oxide, CaO

2614

2850

     3300

d.

d.

   s. a.

    Phosphate, ortho-,
       Ca3(PO4)2

1670

     3140

0.002

d.

   s. a.; i. al.

    Silicate, meta-, CaSiO3 (α)

1540

     2905

0.0095/17

   s. HCl

    Sulphate, CaSO4.2H2O

− 1

1

H2O/130

2

− 2H2O/163

     2320

0.274

0.189

   s. a. , NH4 slt.

    Sulphate, CaSO4

1450

     2960

0.274

0.162

   s. a., NH4 slt.

    Sulphide, CaS

2525

d.

     2500

sl. s. d.

   d. a.

    Tungstate, CaWO3

     6060

0.20

   s. NH4Cl; i. a., al.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top |

Carbon
    Oxide, sub-, C3O2

− 111.3

7

     1114/0

d.

   —

        ,,    , mon-, CO

− 199

− 191.50

      —

3.5 × 10− 2/0(A)

1.5 × 10− 2/60(A)

   s. al., bz., ac.

        ,,    , di-, CO2

sb. − 78.48

     1560/− 79

1.68/0(A)

0.36/60(A)

   s. a., alk., al., acet.

    Oxysulphide, COS

− 138.2

− 50.2

     1240/− 87

0.54/20(A)

   v. s. CS2; s. al.

    Cyanogen, C2N2

− 27.84

− 20.7

     958/− 21

4.5/20(A)

   s. al., eth.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top |

Cerium
    (III) Ammonium nitrate
        (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6

     —

141/25

227/70

   s. a., al.

    (III) Chloride, CeCl3

848

1727

     3920/0

100/0

d.

   s. al., acet.

    (III) Fluoride, CeF3

1460

2300

     6160

i

   —

    (IV)      ,,      , CeF4.H2O

650

d.

     4770

i.

   s. a.

    (III) Nitrate,
        Ce(NO3)3.6H2O

− 3H2O/150

d. 200

      —

176/25

283/50

   s. al., acet.

    (III) Oxide, Ce2O3

1692

     6860

i.

i.

   s. H2SO4; i. HCl

    (IV)    ,,    , CeO2

2600

     7132/23

i.

i.

   s. H2SO4; i. dil. a., alk.

    (III) Sulphate.
        Ce2(SO4)3

d. 920

     3912

9.5

2.25

   —

    (III) Sulphide, Ce2S3

d. 2100 (vac.)

     5020/11

i.

d.

   s. dil. a.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top |

Chlorine
    Oxide, mon-, Cl2O

− 120

exp. 2.2

      —

2/0 (A)

d.

   s. alk., H2SO4

        ,,   , di-, ClO2

− 60

exp. 11.1

      —

20/4 (A)

d.

   s. alk., H2SO4

        ,,   , hepta-, Cl2O7

− 91.5

82

      —

s. d.

   s. bz.

    Perchloric acid, HClO4

− 112

39/56

     1764/22

39/51

   —

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

        

      

       

J.G.E.Phillips

 

 

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