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Chapter: 3 Chemistry
    Section: 3.3 Properties of organic compounds

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3.3 Properties of organic compounds

Formula, melting point, boiling point, density and refractive index

Hydrated forms are indicated thus: para-Toluenesulphonic acid + H2O, and the molecule(s) of water are included in the formula.

Melting, θm, and boiling, θb, points are for a pressure of 101.325 kPa ( 1 atm 760 Torr) and values θ/p at a pressure p. For boiling points at other pressures see section 3.4.4.

Densities and refractive indices (D lines) are for 20 °C unless some other temperature is indicated, e.g., ρ/θ is the density at a temperature θ; n/θ is the refractive index at a temperature θ.

Abbreviations: d., decomposes; exp., explodes; sb., sublimes.


Organic compounds

A |  B |  C |  D |  E |  F |  G |  H |  I |  J |  K |  L |  M |  N |  O |  P |  Q |  R |  S |  T |  U |  V |  W |  X |  Y |  Z | 

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acenaphthene

  C12H10

  95.4

   277.6

906.4/12

1.604 8/98.8

Acetaldehyde

  C2H4O

− 123      

     20.4

778

1.331 1

Acetaldehyde diethyl acetal

  C6H14O2

   103.2

831.4

1.383 4

Acetaldehyde oxime 

  C2H5NO

47

115

965.6

1.425 7

Acetamide 

  C2H5NO

82

221

1159

1.427 4/78

Acetanilide

  C8H9NO

114  

304

1219/15

Acetic acid

  C2H4O2

    16.7

118

1049

1.371 8

Acetic anhydride

  C4H6O3

− 73  

140

1082

1.390 4

Acetone

  C3H6O

− 95  

    56.3

790.0

1.358 7

Acetone oxime

  C3H7NO

61

135

911.3 /62

1.415 6

Acetonitrile 

  C2H3N

  − 43.87

         81.56

785.7

1.344 2

Acetophenone

  C8H8O

   20.5

202

1028

1.534 23

Acetyl bromide

  C2H3BrO

− 98   

  76

1663/16

1.453 8/16

Acetyl chloride

  C2H3ClO

− 112     

  51

1105

1.389 8

Acetylene 

  C2H2

− 84.0

  − 80.8

610 / − 80

1.000 5/0

Acrolein  

  C3H4O

− 86.9

  53

841.0

1.401 7

Acrylic acid    

  C3H4O2

13

     141.6

1051

1.422 4

Acrylonitrile 

  C3H3N

− 83  

      77.8

806.0

1.391 1

Adipic acid  

  C6H10O4

153 

265/100 Torr

1366

Allyl alcohol 

  C3H6O

− 129    

  97

855/15

1.431 5

Allyl bromide

  C3H5Br

  119.4

    70.5

1398

1.469 7

4-Aminobenzoic acid

  C7H7NO2

188 

1374

3-Aminopropan-1-ol

  C3H9NO

11

  187.5

982.4/26

1.461 7

2-Aminopyridine 

  C5H6N2

158  

sb. 204

Aniline 

  C6H7N

  − 6.0

  184.4

1021.8

1.586 2

Aniline hydrochloride

  C6H8ClN

198  

245

1220

Anisole   

  C7H8O

− 37.5

154

996.1

1.517 9

Anthracene 

  C14H10

215.8

    341.4

1250

Anthraquinone 

  C14H8O2

286  

379

1419

trans-Azobenzene 

  C12H10N2

68

293

1200

1.626 6/78

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

Benzaldehyde 

  C7H6O

− 57.1

179

1044.7

1.546 3

Benzamide  

  C7H7NO

132  

290

1341/4

Benzene

  C6H6

       5.53

      80.10

  876.5

1.501 1

Benzoic acid

  C7H6O2

122  

249

1266/15

1.539 7/15

Benzoic anhydride

  C14H10O3

42

360

1199/15

1.576 7/15

Benzoin

  C14H12O2

137  

343

1310

Benzonitrile

  C7H5N

− 12.8

    191.1

1009/15

1.528 2

Benzophenone ( α-)

  C13H10O

49

306

1085/50

1.607 7

p-Benzoquinone

  C6H4O2

 115.7

sb.

1318

Benzoyl chloride

  C7H5ClO

− 1

197

1212

1.553 7

Benzoyl peroxide

  C14H10O4

d. 108

exp.

1.543 0

Benzyl alcohol

  C7H8O

− 15.3

205

1045

1.540 4

Benzyl benzoate

  C14H12O2

21

323

1112

1.568 0

Benzyl chloride

  C7H7Cl

− 39   

179

1098

1.539 1

Biphenyl

  C12H10

70

255

    866.0

1.588 0/75

(±)-Borneol

  C10H18O

208  

sb.

1010

Bromobenzene

  C6H5Br

− 31   

156

1495

1.559 7

Bromoethane

  C2H5Br

− 119    

     38.4

1456

1.423 9

Bromoethanol

  C2H5BrO

149/750 Torr

1763

1.491 5

Bromoform

  CHBr3

   8

150

    2888.9

1.597 6

Bromomethane

  CH3Br

− 93.6

       3.6

1.732/0

1.421 8

1-Bromonaphthalene

  C10H7Br

     6.2

281

    1483.4

1.658 0

1-Bromopropane

  C3H7Br

− 110    

  71

1354

1.434 3

3-Bromopropan-1-ol

  C3H7BrO

62/5 Torr

1537

1.488 0

Butane

  C4H10

− 138.4

   − 0.5

601/0

1.345 3/−13

Butan-1-ol

  C4H10O

  − 89.5

  117.7

     809.7

1.399 3

Butan-2-ol

  C4H10O

− 114.7

    99.6

     806.9

1.397 2

Butanone

  C4H8O

  − 86.4

    79.6

     804.9

1.378 8

Butyric acid

  C4H8O2

  − 5

163

     958.2

1.398 0

γ-Butyrolactone

  C4H6O2

− 42

   206.9

1129

1.434 1

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

(±)-Camphene

  C10H16

   51

158

  879

1.445 1/54

(±)-Camphor

  C10H16O

 179

204

990/25

Carbon disulphide

  CS2

− 111.9

     46.5

  1263.2

1.631 9

Carbon tetrabromide

  CBr4

  90

190

2961/100

Carbon tetrachloride

  CCl4

− 23

    76.7

1594

1.460 1

Catechol

  C6H6O2

105

    245.6

1149

1.604 0

Chloral hydrate

  C2H3Cl3O2

  57

d. 96.3

1908

Chloroacetic acid

  C2H3ClO2

  63

188

1390/75

1.429 7/65

Chloroacetone

  C3H5ClO

− 44.5

119

1150

1.435 0

Chlorobenzene

  C6H5Cl

− 45.6

   131.7

1106

1.524 8

1-Chlorobutane

  C4H9Cl

− 123    

    78.4

     886.2

1.402 1

(±)-2-Chlorobutane

  C4H9Cl

− 140    

  68

  873

1.396 0

Chlorocyclohexane

  C6H11Cl

− 43.9

143

1000

1.462 6

Chlorodifluoromethane

  CHClF2

− 146    

  − 40.8

Chloroethane

  C2H5Cl

− 136    

     12.3

924/0

1.379 0/0

Chloroethanol

  C2H5ClO

− 67.5

128

1200

1.441 9

Chloroform

  CHCl3

− 63.5

      61.2

1483

1.445 9

Chloromethane

  CH3Cl

− 97.1

   − 24.0

991/ − 25

1.338 9

Chlorotrimethylsilane

  C3H9ClSi

−40  

  57.7

    858.0

1.388 5

Cholesterol  

  C27H46O

  148.5

d. 360

1067

1,8-Cineole (eucalyptol)

  C10H18O

      1.5

176

    923.7

1.457 5

trans-Cinnamaldehyde

  C9H8O

    − 7.5

d. 253

1050

1.619 5

trans-Cinnamic acid

  C9H8O2

133

 300

1247/4

Cinnamyl alcohol

  C9H10O

  33

258

1044

1.581 9

Citric acid

  C6H8O7

153

d.

1665

 o-Cresol 

  C7H8O

        31.05

  191.00

1027

1.536 1

 m-Cresol 

  C7H8O

        12.25

  202.23

   1034.1

1.540 6

 p-Cresol

  C7H8O

        34.79

  201.94

1018

1.531 2

trans-Crotonaldehyde

  C4H6O

 −74

104   

  846

1.435 5

trans-Crotonic acid

  C4H6O2

       71.5

185   

1027

1.4249/77

Cumene

  C9H12

     − 96.5

152.4

     861.8

1.491 5

Cyclohexane

  C6H12

          6.5

    80.73

     778.6

1.426 2

Cyclohexanol

  C6H12O

        25.2

161.1

     962.4

1.464 1

Cyclohexanone

  C6H10O

     − 16.4

155.7

     947.8

1.451 0

Cyclohexene

  C6H10

   − 103.5

  83.0

  811

1.446 6

 p-Cymene

  C10H14

     − 67.9

177.1

  857

1.490 9

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

cis-Decalin

  C10H18

       − 43.06

195.8

     896.7

1.481 0

trans-Decalin

  C10H18

     − 30.4

187.3

     869.7

1.469 5

1,2-Diaminoethane

  C2H8N2

           8.5

117.3

     899.5

1.456 8

1,2-Dibromoethane

  C2H4Br2

           9.8

131.4

2179

1.538 7

Dibromomethane

  CH2Br2

       − 52.7

97

2497

1.542 0

Dibutyl phthalate

  C16H22O4

     − 35

340  

1047

1.492 9

Dichloroacetic acid

  C2H2Cl2O2

       10

194  

1563

1.465 8

Dichlorodifluoromethane

  CCl2F2

  − 158

− 29.8

1750/ − 115

1,2-Dichloroethane

  C2H4Cl2

       − 35.7

   83.5

1252

1.444 8

Dichloromethane

  CH2Cl2

       − 95.1

   39.8

1327

1.424 2

Diethanolamine

  C4H11NO2

       28

d. 268

1097

1.472 0/40

Diethylamine

  C4H11N

    − 50

   55.5

     705.6

1.385 4

Diethyl carbonate

  C5H10O3

    − 43

126  

     975.2

1.384 5

Diethyl ether

  C4H10O

   − 116

   34.6

  707

1.352 4

Diethyl malonate

  C7H12O4

       − 48.9

199.3

1055

1.413 9

Diethyl oxalate

  C6H10O4

       − 40.6

185.4

1078

1.410 2

Diethyl sulphate

  C4H10O4S

       − 24.5

209  

1177

1.400 4

Di-iodomethane

  CH2I2

           6.1

182  

3325

1.742 5

Di-isopropylamine

  C6H15N

    − 61

84

     716.9

1.392 4

1,2-Dimethoxyethane

  C4H10O2

    − 58

85

     862.8

1.379 6

N,N-Dimethylacetamide

  C4H9NO

    − 20

165  

     936.6

1.438 0

Dimethylamine

  C2H7N

    −93

     7.4

680.4/0

1.350 0/17

N,N-Dimethylaniline

  C8H11N

          2.5

193  

     955.7

1.558 2

Dimethyl carbonate

  C3H6O3

       3

90

1069

1.368 7

N,N-Dimethylformamide

  C3H7NO

      − 60.5

153  

     948.7

1.430 5

N,N-Dimethylhydrazine

  C2H8N2

63/ 753 Torr

     791.4

1.407 5

Dimethyl sulphate

  C2H6O4S

  − 32

188  

1328

1.387 4

1,3-Dioxane 

  C4H8O2

  − 42

106  

1034

1.416 5

1,4-Dioxane

  C4H8O2

        11.8

  101.3

1034

1.422 4

Diphenylamine

  C12H11N

   54

302

1159

1,2-Diphenylethane

  C14H14

   52

284

  995

1.547 8/60

Diphenyl ether 

  C12H10O

   28

258

1075

1.578 7

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

Epichlorohydrin

  C3H5ClO

− 57

116

1180

1.436 1

Ethane

  C2H6

− 183.3 

  − 88.6

572/ − 100

Ethanediol

  C2H6O2

− 13  

197

1114

1.431 8

Ethanethiol 

  C2H6S

− 144.4 

  35

     839.1

1.431 0

Ethanol

  C2H6O

− 117.3 

     78.3

     789.4

1.361 4

Ethanolamine

  C2H7NO

    10.5

171

1018

1.453 9

2-Ethoxyethanol

  C4H10O2

− 90  

    135.1

  929

1.407 7

Ethyl acetate

  C4H8O2

 − 83.6

      77.1

     900.6

1.372 4

Ethyl acetoacetate 

  C6H10O3

− 45  

181

1028

1.419 2

Ethyl acrylate

  C5H8O2

− 71  

  99

     923.4

1.406 8

Ethylamine

  C2H7N

 − 80.6

     16.6

     706/0

Ethylbenzene

  C8H10

   − 94.98

   136.2

     867.0

1.495 9

Ethyl benzoate 

  C9H10O2

− 35  

212

1047

1.505 7

Ethyl chloroacetate

  C4H7ClO2

− 26  

143

1158

1.421 5

Ethyl crotonate

  C6H10O2

136

     917.5

1.424 3

Ethyl cyanoacetate

  C5H7NO2

− 22  

205

1065

1.417 5

Ethylene

  C2H4

− 169.2

− 103.7

   —

Ethylene oxide 

  C2H4O

− 111.3

     10.7

     877/7

1.359 7/7

Ethyl formate 

  C3H6O2

− 79  

     54.2

  917

1.359 9

Ethyl nitrate

  C2H5NO3

− 95  

     87.5

1109

1.385 3

Ethyl nitrite

  C2H5NO2

  17

    900/15

1.341 8/10

Ethyl salicylate

  C9H10O3

      1.3

232

1131

1.529 6

Eugenol 

  C10H12O2

  − 10.3

254

1065

1.540 5

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

Fluorene 

  C13H10

116

295

1203/0

Fluorobenzene 

  C6H5F

  − 41.2

     84.7

1024

1.468 4

Formaldehyde

  CH2O

− 92

  − 19.1

815/ − 20

Formamide

  CH3NO

       2.6

d. 210

1133

1.447 5

Formic acid 

  CH2O2

       8.4

   100.6

1220

1.371 4

D-Fructose

  C6H12O6

d. 102

1598

Fumaric acid

  C4H4O4

300

sb.

1635

Furan

  C4H4O

− 86  

     31.4

     937.8

1.421 4

Furfuraldehyde

  C5H4O2

 − 38.7

162

1160

1.526 1

Furfuryl alcohol 

  C5H6O2

− 29  

170

1129

1.486 8

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

α-D-Glucose

  C6H12O6

142

1544/25

Glycerol 

  C3H8O3

  20

182/20 Torr

1261

1.474 6

Glycerol trioleate

  C57H104O6

 − 4

235/18 Torr

   899/50

1.456 1/60

Glycerol tripalmitate

  C51H98O6

     65.5

315

    875 /70

1.438 1/80

Glycerol tristearate

  C57H110O6

55(α); 73(β)

    856 /90

1.438 5/80

Glycine

  C2H5NO2

d. 236

 —

Guaiacol

  C7H8O2

      28.2

205

1129/ 21.4

1.542 9

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

Heptane 

  C7H16

   − 90.6

     98.4

  684

1.387 6

Hexamethylphosphoric
    triamide

  C6H18N3OP

     7

230/740 Torr

1030

1.458 0

Hexamine

  C6H12N4

sb. 285

Hexane

  C6H14

 − 95.3

68.7

 659

1.374 9

Hippuric acid 

  C9H9NO3

190

d.

1371

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

Imidazole 

  C3H4N2

  90

257   

1030/101

1.480 1/101

Indene

  C9H8

    − 1.5

182.4

 996

1.576 4

Indole

  C8H7N

    52.5

254    

1220

Iodoethane

  C2H5I

− 108    

72.3

1936

1.513 3

Iodoform

  CHI3

121

sb. exp. 210

4008

Iodomethane

  CH3I

  − 66.5

42.4

2280

1.538 0

Isobutane

  C4H10

− 159.6

  − 11.7     

  549

Isobutyric acid

  C4H8O2

− 46

153    

     968.2

1.393 0

Isoprene

  C5H8

− 120 

32.6

  680

1.421 9

Isoquinoline

  C9H7N

       26.5

242/743 Torr

1099

1.614 8

Isovaleric acid

  C5H10O2

− 29

177   

  929

1.403 3

Top |

DL-Lactic acid

  C3H6O3

   18

129/15 Torr

1206

1.439 2

α-D-Lactose + H2

  C12H24O12

− H2O/130

d. 230

1525

  —

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

Maleic acid  

  C4H4O4

   140

d.

1592

  —

Maleic anhydride

  C4H2O3

     60

200  

1314/60

  —

Malonic acid  

  C3H4O4

      135.6

d. 140

1631/15

  —

β-D-Maltose + H2O

  C12H24O12

− H2O/100

1540

  —

(—)-Menthol

  C10H20O

Four forms

212   

890/15

1.460 0

   

44, 35, 33, 31

     

Mercaptoacetic acid 

  C2H4O2S

  − 16.5

120/20 Torr

1325

1.503 0

Mesitylene

  C9H12 

  − 44.7

164.7

      865.2

1.499 4

Mesityl oxide

  C6H10O

  − 52.9

129.7

      865.3

1.444 0

Methane 

  CH4

− 182.5 

− 161.5    

466/ − 164

  —

Methanesulphonic acid

  CH4O3S

  20

167/10 Torr

1481

1.430 0

Methanol 

  CH4O

  − 97.7

  64.7

     791.3

1.328 4

2-Methoxyethanol

  C3H8O2

  − 85.1

125   

     964.7

1.402 4

Methyl acetate 

  C3H6O2

  − 98.1

  56.3

  934

1.361 4

Methyl acrylate

  C4H6O2

− 75

  80.5

     953.5

1.404 0

Methylamine 

  CH5N

  − 92.5

 − 6.3

699/ − 10.8

  —

N-Methylaniline

  C7H9N

− 57

196   

  989

1.568 4

Methyl anthranilate

  C8H9NO2

  24

256   

1168/18.6

1.581 0

Methyl benzoate 

  C8H8O2

  − 12.1

199.5

1093/15

1.517 0

2-Methylbutane 

  C5H12

− 159.9

  27.9

  620

1.353 7

(−)-2-Methylbutan-1-ol

  C5H12O

− 70

129   

  819

1.410 7

2-Methylbutan-2-ol 

  C5H12O

  − 9

102   

  810

1.404 9

Methylcyclohexane

  C7H14

 − 126.6

100.9

     769.4

1.423 1

Methyl formate

  C2H4O2

 − 99

   31.5

     974.2

1.343 3

Methyl methacrylate 

  C5H8O2

− 48

100   

  943

1.414 6

2-Methylpropan-1-ol

  C4H10O

− 108  

107.7

      801.8

1.395 5

2-Methylpropan-2-ol

  C4H10O

     25.8

  82.4

     788.7

1.387 7

N-Methylpyrrole

  C5H7N

− 57

114   

  914

1.487 5

1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone

  C5H9NO

− 23

202   

1033

1.468 4

Methyl salicylate

  C8H8O3

     − 8.6

233   

1174

1.536 5

Morpholine 

  C4H9NO

     − 3.1

129   

  999

1.454 2

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

Naphthalene

  C10H8  

        80.29

    218.0

962/100

1.582 2/100

1-Naphthol

  C10H8O

     95.8

283

1096/99

1.620 6/98.7

2-Naphthol

  C10H8O

 123 

288

1272

1.601 1/143

1-Naphthylamine

  C10H9N

 50

301

1123/25

1.670 3/51

2-Naphthylamine

  C10H9N

113

306

1061/98

1.649 3/98

(−)-Nicotine

  C10H14N2

− 79

247

1010

1.528 0

Nitrobenzene

  C6H5NO2

       5.8

211

1204

1.553 0

Nitroethane

  C2H5NO2

− 90 

114

1051

1.391 9

Nitromethane

  CH3NO2

− 29 

101

1138

1.381 2

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

Octane

  C8H18  

  − 56.8

    125.7

  703

1.397 4

Octane-1-ol

  C8H18O

  − 15.0

195

   826

1.429 5

Oleic acid 

  C18H34O2

  16

194/1.2 Torr

  893

1.459 2

Oxalic acid (α-)

  C2H2O4

    189.5

d.

1900/17

Oxetane

  C3H6O

   —

     47.8

  893

1.396 1

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

Palmitic acid

  C16H32O2

  63

351

853/62

1.433 5/60

Paraldehyde

  C6H12O3

     12.6

128

  994

1.404 9

Pentane

  C5H12

− 129.7

     36.3

      626.2

1.357 5

Pentane-2,4-dione

  C5H8O2

− 23

    140.4

  975

1.449 4

Pentan-1-ol

  C5H12O

− 78

138

  815

1.410 0

Pentan-2-ol

  C5H12O

119

  809

1.405 3

Pentan-3-one

  C5H10O

   − 39.8 

    101.7

      813.8

1.392 4

Phenanthrene

  C14H10

     99.5

340

1172

1.656 7/129

Phenetole

  C8H10O

  − 29.5

170

     966.6

1.507 6

Phenol

  C6H6O

      40.92

      181.84

1058

1.542 5/40.6

Phenylacetic acid

  C8H8O2

  77

    265.5

     1091/77

Phosgene

  CCl2

− 118   

        8.3

1381

Phthalic acid

  C8H6O4

d. > 191

1593

Phthalic anhydride 

  C8H4O3

   131.6

285

1527/4

Phthalimide

  C8H5O2N

238

  —

2-Picoline

  C6H7N

    − 66.70

      129.41

     944.3

1.501 0

3-Picoline

  C6H7N

   − 18.14

      144.14

     956.6

1.506 8

4-Picoline

  C6H7N

        3.65

       145.36

     954.8

1.505 8

Picric acid

  C6H3N3O7

    122.5 

sb. exp.> 300

1763

(±)-α-Pinene

  C10H16

− 55

156

  858

1.465 8

Piperazine

  C4H10N2

  106

146

1.446 0/113

Piperidine

  C5H11N

  − 9

106

  861

1.452 5

Pivalic acid.

  C5H10O2

   35

164

905/50

1.393 1/30

Propane

  C3H8

− 187.7

   − 42.1  

585.3/ − 45

1.289 8

Propan-1-ol 

  C3H8O

− 126   

      97.2

  804

1.385 6

Propan-2-ol 

  C3H8O

  − 89.5

      82.3

  785

1.377 6

Propene

  C3H6

− 185.3

   − 47.7

  —

1.356 7/ − 70

Propionaldehyde

  C3H6O

− 81

     48.8

      805.8

1.363 6

Propionic acid 

  C3H6O2

   − 20.8

141

     993.0

1.380 9

Pyrazine

  C4H4N2

   54

115

1031/61

1.495 3/61

Pyridazine 

  C4H4N2

 − 8

208

1103

1.521 8

Pyridine

  C5H5N

    − 41.55

115.26

      983.1

1.510 1

Pyrimidine 

  C4H4N2

  22

123

1016

1.499 8

Pyrogallol    

  C6H6O3

133

309

1453 / 4

1.5610/134

Pyrrole

  C4H5N

− 23 

131

    969.1

1.508 5

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

Quinhydrone 

  C12H10O4

171

1401

Quinol

  C6H6O2

   172.5

286

1330

1.630

Quinoline

  C9H7N

  − 15.6

   237.6

1093

1.626 9

Top |

Resorcinol

  C6H6O2

110

   276.6

1278

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

Salicylic acid

  C7H6O3

159

sb. 255

1443

1.565 0

Stearic acid

  C18H36O2

    71.5

232/15 Torr

  941

1.429 9

Styrene 

  C8H8

 − 30.6

d. 145

     906.2

1.546 8

Succinic acid    

  C4H6O4

185  

d. 235
(to anhydride)

1564/15

1.450 0

Succinic anhydride

  C4H4O3

119  

261

1234

  —

Sucrose  

  C12H22O11

184  

d.

1588/15

1.537 6

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

meso- Tartaric acid        

  C4H6O6

147  

1666

1.500 0

(±)-Tartaric acid + H2O

  C4H8O7

− H2O/100

1697

  —

(±) or (−)-Tartaric acid 

  C4H6O6

172  

1760

1.495 5

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

  C2H2Cl4

− 36  

146

1595

1.494 0

Tetrachloroethylene 

  C2Cl4

− 20  

121

    1622.7

1.505 3

Tetrahydrofuran

  C4H8O

− 108   

  67

      889.2

1.405 0

1,2,3,4-Tetralin 

  C10H12

   − 35.8

    207.6

  970

1.541 4

Tetramethylsilane

  C4H12Si

 − 102.2

      26.5

  648

1.358 7

Thiophene

  C4H4

  − 38.2

      84.2

   1064.8

1.528 7

Thiophenol

  C6H6

  − 14.8

     168.7

1077

1.589 3

Thiourea

  CH4N2S

180

   d.

1405

  —

Thymol 

  C10H14O

     51.5

232

  969

1.527 7

Toluene 

  C7H8

 − 95.0

110.6

     868.8

1.496 9

 para‑Toluenesulphonic acid
    + H2O

  C7H10O4S

104

140/20

  —

 o-Toluidine 

  C7H9N

  − 14.7

200

    99.8

1.572 5

 m-Toluidine

  C7H9N

− 30

203

 999

1.568 1

 p-Toluidine 

  C7H9N

   44

201

 962

1.553 5/50

Trichloroacetyl chloride

  C2Cl4O

− 146  

118

1620

1.469 5

1,1,1-Trichloroethane

  C2H3Cl3

   − 30.4

      74.1

1339

1.437 9

Trichloroethylene

  C2HCl3

− 86

  87

1464

1.477 3

Trichlorofluoromethane

  CCl3F

− 111   

      23.7

1494/17

1.382 1

Triethanolamine

  C6H15NO3

      21.6

335

1124

1.485 2

Triethylamine  

  C6H15N

 − 114.7

    89.3

     727.5

1.401 0

Trifluoroacetic acid

  C2HF3O2

   − 15.2

    72.4

1480

  —

Trifluoroacetic anhydride

  C4F6O3

− 65

    39.5

1487

1.2690/25

Trifluoromethanesulphonic
     acid

  CHF3O3S

162

1696

1.327 0

Trifluoromethanesulphonic
     anhydride

  C2F6O5S

82/745 Torr

1677

1.321 0

Trimethyl orthoformate

  C4H10O

103

     967.6

1.379 3

2,2,4-Trimethylpentane

  C8H18

  − 107.4

     99.2

 692

1.391 5

Trimethyl phosphite

  C3H9O3P

− 78

111

1052

1.409 5

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

  C7H5N3O6

       80.8

exp. 240

1654

 —

Triphenylmethane

  C19H16

       94    

359

1014/99

1.583 9/99

Triphenylphosphine 

  C18H15P

       80    

377

1075/80

1.635 8/80

Substance

Formula

Melting point

θm/°C

Boiling point

θb/°C

Density

ρ/(kg m−3)

Refractive
index

Top |

Urea

  CH4N2O

135

d.

1323

1.484 0

Uric acid

  C5H4N4O3

d.    

1893

 —

Top |

Valeric acid

  C5H10O2

− 34 

186

  939

1.408 0

(±)-γ-Valerolactone

  C5H8O2

− 31 

206

1057

1.432 8

δ-Valerolactone

  C5H8O2

− 12.5

219

1079

1.450 3

Vanillin

  C8H8O3

80

285

1056

 —

Top |

 o-Xylene

  C8H10  

− 25.2

   144.5

       880.14

1.505 5

 m-Xylene

  C8H10  

− 47.9

   139.1

       864.36

1.497 2

 p-Xylene 

  C8H10  

   13.3

   138.4

       860.98

1.495 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

J.G.E.Phillips

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