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3.9.8   Solubility products in aqueous solutions

The equilibrium between a solid and its aqueous solution is rarely as simple as

 

MaXb  ←→ aM + bX

 

with the solubility product (Ks0) of a salt defined as [M]a[X]b since the solid has constant activity (charges on the ions have been ignored). The value of Ks0 does not give any information about other possible equilibria (side reactions) such as formation of higher complexes and pH effects when basic anions or acidic cations are involved. It is also necessary to know the nature of the precipitated phase. Many published data relate to poorly characterised solid phases. Selection of values from discrepant literature can be quite arbitrary. Most of the following values of pKs0 = −log Ks0 relate to 298 K and zero ionic strength; others may be found in Sillen and Martell (1964) and the extensive series of IUPAC Solubility Data compilations.

Reference

L. G. Sillen and A. E. Martell (1964) Stability Constants of Metal Ligand Complexes, Sp. Publ. 17, The Chemical
    Society, London.

Anion

Cation

pKs0

 

 Anion

Cation

  pKs0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bromide 

  copper (I)

  8.28

 

hydroxide (contd)

   mercury (II)

25.4   

 

  lead

  5.04

 

 

   nickel

17.19 

 

  mercury (I)

22.24

 

 

   tin (II)

26.2   

 

  silver (I)

12.30

 

 

   zinc

17.15 

carbonate 

  barium

  8.29

 

iodate      .     .     .

   barium

  8.82 

   

  cadmium

11.28

 

 

   cadmium

  7.64 

   

  calcium

  8.32

 

 

   calcium

  6.15 

   

  iron (II)

10.68

 

 

   lead

12.6   

 

  lead

13.14

 

 

   silver (I)

  7.51

 

  magnesium

  7.46

 

 

   strontium

  6.48

 

  manganese (II)

  9.30

 

  

   zinc

  5.41

  

  mercury (I)

16.05

 

iodide      .     .     . 

   copper (I)

11.96

 

  nickel (II)

  6.87

 

 

   lead

  8.19

 

  silver (I)

11.09

 

 

   mercury (I)

28.35

 

  strontium

  9.03

 

 

   silver (I)

16.08

 

  zinc

10.78

 

sulphate   .     .     .

   barium

  9.99

chloride

  copper (I)

  6.73

 

 

   calcium

  4.61

 

  lead

  4.79

 

 

   lead

  7.80

 

  mercury (I)

 17.88

 

 

   mercury (I)

  6.33

 

  silver (I)

    9.749

 

 

   silver (I)

  4.77

ethanoate 

   silver(I)

   2.16

 

 

   strontium

  6.46

fluoride

   barium

   5.98

 

sulphide   .     .     .

   bismuth

88.72

 

   calcium

  10.31

 

 

   cadmium

27.94

 

   europium

  16.65

 

 

   copper (I)

48.58

 

   lanthanum

18.5

 

 

   copper (II)

37.49

 

   lead

    7.57

 

 

   iron (II)

17.3  

 

   magnesium

     8.18

 

 

   lead

29.37

 

   strontium

     8.61

 

 

   manganese (II) 

14.96

hydroxide 

   cadmium

    14.22 

 

 

   mercury (II) black 

51.8  

  

   calcium

     5.26

 

 

   mercury (II) red

52.4  

 

   cobalt (II)

   14.89

 

 

   nickel (II)

20.7  

 

   iron (II)

 15.1

 

 

   silver (I)

51.02

 

   iron (III)

   39.43

 

 

   tin (II)

26.94

 

   lead

   14.93

 

 

   zinc

25.94

 

   magnesium

 11.3

 

thiocyanate

   mercury (I)

19.52

 

   manganese (II)

 12.7

 

 

   silver (I)

11.94

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A.K. Covington

 

 

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