spacer spacer Go to Kaye and Laby Home spacer
spacer
spacer spacer spacer
spacer
spacer
spacer
spacer spacer

You are here:

spacer

Chapter: 5 Miscellaneous engineering data
    Section: 5.3 Indentation hardness testing

spacer
spacer

spacer

« Previous Section

Next Chapter »

Unless otherwise stated this page contains Version 1.0 content (Read more about versions)

5.3 Indentation hardness testing

The hardness of a material has been defined as: ‘a measure of the resistance to permanent deformation or damage’. Strictly speaking, indentation hardness is not a physical quantity, but it is easily measured and widely used to characterize materials of all kinds. In this measurement a precisely shaped tool is driven into the surface of a test specimen by applying known forces under carefully controlled conditions. The size of the resulting indentation is measured and used to calculate a hardness value for the material, which may then be used to assess other properties such as tensile strength, state of heat treatment, resistivity, etc. Indentation hardness measurements may be reproducible to within 1%.

Several different hardness scales have been devised, differing in the shape and material of the indenter used, and in the applied forces. For very thin coatings or very small components, superficial hardness or microhardness testers apply small forces and thus produce small indentations.

The tables below show (approximate) relationships between hardness values measured on some commonly used scales.

 

Non-austenitic steels

 

 

 

 

Vickers (diamond pyramid, 30 kg) HV30  .    .    .    .    .    .

300

500

800

Brinell (10 mm steel ball, 3000 kg) HB10/3000   .    .    .    .

295

471

722

Rockwell (diamond cone, 150 kg) HRC   .    .    .     .    .    .

     29.8

     49.1

     64.0

 

 

 

 


 

Hard metals

 

 

 

 

Vickers (50 kg) HV50 .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .

1000       

1400        

1700        

Rockwell (60 kg) HRA     .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .

85.7

89.7

92.0

Rockwell (150 kg) HRC   .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .

68.2

75.4

79.8

 

 

 

 


 

Aluminium

 

 

 

 

 

Vickers (10 kg) HV10     .     .    .    .    .    .    .    .   . 

20   

60   

100

160   

Brinell HB2/20 up to 60, then HB2/40 .    .    .    .    .

19.4

56.2

     93.0

148.2

Rockwell superficial HR15-T

(

1

 inch steel ball)

16

     2.3   

66.9

     80.3

       88.0    

 

 

 

 

 


 

Brass

 

 

 

 

 

Vickers HV30   .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .

60

100

140

196

Rockwell

(

1

 inch ball, 100 kg) HRB  .    .    .    .

16

10

  56

  76

      93.5

Brinell HB10/500  .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .  

 55

  88

122

169

 

 

 

 

 


References

BS 427 (1990) Methods for Vickers Hardness Testing and the verification of Vickers hardness testing machines.
BS 891 (1989) Hardness testing (Rockwell method), etc.
BS 240 (1986 / 1991) Methods for Brinell hardness testing, etc.
BS 4175 (1989) Methods for superficial hardness testing (Rockwell method).
ISO 4516 (1980) Metallic and related coatings, Part 6, Vickers and Knoop microhardness tests.

O.C. Jones

spacer


spacer
spacer
spacer spacer spacer

Home | About | Table of Contents | Advanced Search | Copyright | Feedback | Privacy | ^ Top of Page ^

spacer

This site is hosted and maintained by the National Physical Laboratory © 2017.

spacer